So, for the first time in America's modern history, we have five generations interacting at work. 這是美國現代史上第一次，工作環境中有五代人共存。
The veterans, born between 1922 and 1943, are known as the Greatest Generation, the matures, the silents. They're known for their self-sacrifice, respect for authority and work as its own reward. 出生于1922-1943年間的老兵一代，他們是最偉大的一代、成熟的一代、沉默的一代。他們犧牲自我、尊重權威，以工作為榮。
The boomers came shortly after, born between 1944 and 1960. This is a generation characterized by hard work. In fact, we can thank this generation for the term "workaholic." They appreciate competition, they love effective communication. And they're thinking towards retirement, if they haven't retired already. 隨后的1944-1960年，美國迎來了嬰兒潮一代。這一代人工作勤奮。實際上，出現“工作狂”這個詞還得感謝他們。他們注重競爭，喜歡有效溝通。那些還沒退休的人則暢想著退休后的生活。
Generation X is known as the lost generation the latchkey generation, born between 1961 and 1980. This is the smallest generation, sandwiched between boomers and the big millennials. More parents were divorced in this generation than any generation prior. They also were the first generation to tell us about work-life balance, and the first to really ask for that in the workplace. “X一代”也被稱為迷惘的一代、掛鑰匙的一代，他們出生于1961-1980年間。這一代人，人數最少，介于嬰兒潮一代和龐大的千禧一代之間。這一代人的父母的離婚率高于此前的任何一代。他們也是第一代跟我們談論要平衡工作與生活的人，同時也是第一代真正在工作中爭取這種平衡的人。
And then millennials -- you know, the everybody-gets-a-ribbon generation -- born between 1981 and 2000. Never knew a time where technology wasn't present in the home. They're incredibly pragmatic, they're hopeful and they're determined. They think they're going to change the world, in fact, I believe they're going to do it. They might be a little bit idealistic sometimes, but in just the last several years, we've seen millennials overtake Generation X to be the most represented generation in the workforce. In fact, more than one in three people in the United States labor force is a millennial. And soon to join us there, Generation Z, born since 2000, our high school interns or soon to be high school graduates. “人人都披綬帶”的千禧一代出生于1981-2000年間。他們不知道科技走進千家萬戶之前世界是什么樣的。他們非常務實、懷抱希望、決心強大。他們認為他們能改變世界，事實上，我相信他們會去改變世界。有時候，他們或許有點理想主義，但是就在前幾年，我們看到千禧一代超越了X一代，成為了工作中的主力軍。實際上，美國的勞動力，每三個人中就有一個是千禧一代。很快，又出現了Z一代，即2000年后出生的人，他們有些是高中實習生，有些很快將成為畢業生。
Now, if you open any internet browser, look at Amazon, search any of your favorite search engines, you might assume there's a literal war in the workplace, right? We see blog topics like "Seventeen reasons why millennials are the worst generation." And "Why baby boomers have ruined it for everybody." Or "Bridging the great generational divide." It's like turning into this "West Side Story," like, boomers come in one door, millennials come in another door, the lobby, they just fight with each other all day, complain, go home, do the same, come back to work, right? 現在，你隨便打開一個網絡瀏覽器，看一下亞馬遜，打開你喜歡的任一個搜索引擎，你或許會想，工作場所中有一場口水戰正在上演，是嗎?我們就會看到這樣的博文話題：“17個理由說明為什么說千禧一代是最糟糕的一代”、“為什么說嬰兒潮一代毀了大家的一切”、或者“消除代際分歧”。就像《西區故事》一樣，就像嬰兒潮一代從一扇門進來，千禧一代從另一扇門進來，他們成天扭打、互相抱怨、回家，相同的戲碼反復上演，再繼續工作，是吧?
Well, so what if I told you these generations may not exist? I've been spending some time thinking about this and researching this, and fellow researchers and I aren't exactly sure that these generations are real. And in fact, if we can agree that these groups even exist, we certainly don't agree who belongs in them. And they span something like 20 years. So at whatever point in history, a one-year-old and a 20-year-old are said to share the same value system, to want the same things at work, to have the same stereotypes working for and against them. And in fact, different areas of the world define these generations differently. So we can't even compare generations across various areas of the world. And these stereotypes about each generation have, in a lot of ways, created this self-fulfilling prophecy, that people begin to act as if they're part of that generation because we've said out loud that generation is real. I'm not so sure that it is. 那如果我告訴你這幾代人或許都不存在，會怎么樣?我曾花了一些時間來思考并研究這個問題，而我和其他研究成員并不確定這幾代人真的存在。事實上，就算我們都認為這幾代人存在，我們也不確定誰屬于哪一代人。一代大概是20年。所以在歷史長河中的任何一個時間點，一個1歲的孩子和一個20歲的大人遵循相同的價值體系、在工作中想要一樣的東西、在工作環境中面臨相同的模式化觀念，事實上，全球各地對每一代人的界定不盡相同。所以我們甚至無法比較全球各地的每一代人。這些關于每一代人的模式化觀念在很多方面創造了自證預言，即人們的行為舉止似乎開始說明他們是那一代人的一份子，因為我們明確地說了那一代人真實存在。我不敢茍同。
And in fact, this idea of generations has become deeply embedded in United States culture. When we talk generations, people know exactly what we're talking about. In fact, people have a lot of thoughts and feelings about each of these generations. And I'll tell you how I know this. I did the thing that every red-blooded American and pre-tenure academic does when they have a question. I Googled some stuff. And this is what I learned. Google is based on algorithms, and they provide you with commonly searched terms, or suggested hits, based on what other people are searching surrounding the same topic. And it gave me a really good sense of what people think about each of these generations. Take a look. 實際上，這種一代人一代人的想法在美國文化中根深蒂固。當我們談論一代人的時候，對方知道我們談論的是什么。實際上，人們對每一代人都有很多的想法和感覺。我來跟你們說說我是怎么知道的。我做了一件每一個血氣方剛的、尚未獲得終身職位的美籍學者遇到問題時會做的事。我在谷歌上搜索了一些內容。這就是我搜索到的內容。谷歌是按照算法運行的，會顯示常用搜索詞條、或者根據其他人就相同主題的搜索出現的查詢結果。人們對每一代人是怎么看的呢?就此，谷歌真的讓我有了很好的認識。一起看看吧。
I learned that baby boomers are conservative, that Americans think they're stupid. The worst generation, they're angry, apparently they're racist and they're so important. Looking at Generation X, I learned Generation X is a cynical group, they're angry, they're known as the lost generation -- we know this; they're the smallest generation. Apparently, they're stupid too. 我了解到，嬰兒潮一代比較保守，美國人覺得他們很傻。他們是最糟糕的一代，他們憤憤不平，顯然他們信奉種族主義，但是他們非常重要。接下來看看X一代，我了解到，X一代憤世嫉俗，他們憤懣不平，他們是迷惘的一代，人盡皆知;他們這一代規模最小、人數最少。顯然，他們也很傻。
And mostly, they're frustrated with baby boomers. 在很大程度上，他們對嬰兒潮一代感到懊惱。
Alright, millennials, this is what I learned about us. So, we're obsessed with food. 繼續看，千禧一代，這是對我自己這一代的認識：我們沉迷于吃吃吃，無法自拔。
We're also stupid, ah! We're lazy, we're sensitive, we're fired, we're also hated, and we think we're important. And perhaps the most terrifying search result on the internet -- Generation Z is screwed. 還有，我們也很傻。我們很懶、敏感又玻璃心，我們被開除、被解雇，我們也遭人嫌遭人恨，我們還認為自己很重要?；蛟S網上搜到的最糟糕的結果是——Z一代完蛋了。
OK, so, for five years, I've been talking to leaders and followers across a wide variety of organizations. And this is what I've come to realize. Generations haven't become part of the conversation -- generations have become the conversation at work. What I've learned is that we're working under the assumption that those Google results are true. And so, what I think is that organizations are now desperate to figure out how to "manage" the multigenerational workplace. "Manage" it. We manage all sorts of things. We're preparing for this wave of millennials to come to work. So we prepare for hurricanes, right? We prepare to take the MCAT, we prepare for natural disasters. Why are we preparing for 23-year-olds to come to work? 過去五年，我不斷地與各個組織機構的領導及其追隨者談話。我發現了，一代又一代的人并沒有成為我們的談話內容，但他們是工作場合中的談話內容。我發現，我們正在假設上述谷歌搜索結果為真命題的情境下工作。所以我認為，各個組織機構目前特別想搞清楚要如何去“管理”多代人的工作環境?！肮芾怼?。我們什么都管。我們正在準備迎接一大波千禧一代進入職場。我們會做好準備防范颶風，是嗎?我們準備參加醫學院入學考試，我們做好準備，應對自然災害。一群23歲的人即將進入職場，為什么我們要做準備呢?
I've talked to these organizations, and I've heard amazing things that they're doing to create a workspace for everybody to get along and to have autonomy and to feel like they're thriving. But I've also heard some really incredibly harebrained ideas about how to navigate the multigenerational workplace. Are you ready? This is what I saw. I visited an organization, and they adopted this idea that if you can see it, you can be it. A really important concept. But I think they blew it. The put pictures on the walls of the ideal multigenerational workplace, because if you can see it, you can be it. 我與各個組織機構談話，我聽說了他們所做的驚人努力，去打造人人都能和諧相處的工作環境，打造自主權，讓大家覺得整個團隊正在茁壯成長。但是我也聽說了一些愚蠢至極的想法，關于管理多代人的工作環境。你們準備好了嗎?這就是我所看到的。我參觀了一個機構，他們就采用了這個想法，即你能看到就能做到。一個非常重要的理念。但我們覺得他們沒用對。他們在墻上掛了很多圖，主題是理想的多代人工作環境，因為你能看到就能做到。
Or like this one. 或者像這個。
Like, I don't even want to work here. 我根本不想在這里工作!
You don't get to wear color here, apparently, and HR seriously has problems with people jumping in heels, I promise you that, OK? I talked to an organization who recently decided against putting a ball pit in the break room because that's how you retain millennials. We're 30, not three. 顯然，在這里你不能穿鮮艷亮麗的服裝，HR肯定對穿著高跟鞋還蹦跶的人不滿，我打包票，好吧?我跟一個機構溝通，他們最近做出了決定，反對在休息室里放置海洋球，這是留住千禧一代的技倆。我們都30了，不是三歲小孩子。
And in fact, I know a young, at the time, millennial, who was told that if she wanted people to take her seriously, just because she was a millennial, she would have to do this -- wear shoulder pads. Yes. People younger than her and older than her wouldn't take her seriously unless she wore shoulder pads. Straight-out-of-the-80s, can't-even-buy-them-anywhere shoulder pads. This young woman had two graduate degrees. This young woman was me. And this is the best we came up with? How to navigate the multigenerational workplace ... is shoulder pads? 實際上，我當時還知道一位千禧一代，有人告訴她，如果想讓別人把她當回事，就因為她是千禧一代，她就得這么做————用肩墊。就是這樣。比她年長或比她年輕的人不會把她當回事，除非她用肩墊。就算是80年代也買不到的那種肩墊。這位年輕女性擁有兩個碩士學位。這位年輕女性就是我。這就是我們能想到的最好的解決方法嗎?管理多代人的工作環境……要靠肩墊?
So, this is also what I've learned talking to organizations that employ a wide range of people of various ages. We are so much more similar than we are different. And we're hearing this consistently. People want work that matters, they want flexibility, they want support, they want appreciation, they want better coffee. But none of these things are tied to a generation. Now, sure, we see small differences in what people want. We know 20-year-olds and 60-year-olds go home and do different things. They have different values. At least when it comes to things happening outside of work. 這是也我與各個組織機構交談的發現，這些組織結構里有各個年齡層次的員工。我們的確有不同的一面，但我們有更多相似的一面。而且我們聽到的也都是：人們想做真正有用的工作，想要自由靈活，想要獲得支持，想要被欣賞稱贊，想要更好喝的咖啡。這些都不是只與某一代人掛鉤的東西。我們確實會發現人們的追求有細微差別。我們知道，20歲的人和60歲的人下班回家后所做的事情不一樣。他們有著不同的價值觀。至少對于工作以外的事情是如此。
But I think what's happened is that this focus on generational cohorts, these groups of people, has created a space where we just forgot that people are people. And to know who they really are, who we really work with, we have to figure out how to better navigate this multigenerational workplace than ball pits. Call me one of those idealist millennials, but I think we can get there. And I don't think the idea is too terribly difficult. 但是我認為，對一代人的關注，對一代又一代人的關注，打造了這樣一個環境——我們忘了大家都是人。為了知道他們到底是誰、我們到底在和誰一起工作，我們得搞清楚如何更好地管理這個多代人的工作環境?？梢裙芎Ｑ笄蚬艿煤冒?你們可以說我是千禧一代中的理想主義者，但我相信我們能做到。而且我也不覺得這個想法很難實現。
What if we radically, simply, not easily, meet people where they are? Individualize our approach. I've never met a generation. I've had a lot of conversations with people who happened to identify with a specific generational cohort. I know that 80-year-olds text message and 23-year-olds crochet blankets. None of these things are stereotypical of that generation, right? 如果我們從根本上、單純地、而非簡單地去認識一個人，那會怎么樣?因人而異。我從來不認識某一代人。有些人恰巧與特定的某一代人產生了共鳴，我與他們進行過深入的交談。我認識知道怎么發短信的耄耋老人，也認識會織毯子的年輕人。但是這些并不是那一代人的典型特征，對吧?
Nilofer Merchant -- she's a thought leader in innovation -- she tells us we have to meet people in their onlyness, that is, that spot in the world where only we stand, as a function of our unique history, our experiences and our hopes. But this requires flexibility and curiosity. Nilofer Merchant是一位創新思想領袖，她告訴大家，我們得去認識人們的唯一性，也就是我們在世界上的唯一處境，這是我們獨特的歷史、我們的經歷、我們的希望造就的結果。但這需要靈活應對、要有好奇心。
And what happens when we meet people in their onlyness, only the spot in the world that they stand, we learn that that boomer who is just acting "angry" at work all the time is scared. Because he's worked every day since he was 16 years old, and on a Monday, sooner than he can imagine, he'll never go to work again. He's got plans. It's going to take like a week and a half to do all the things on that retirement list. But then what? What if we give a little bit of grace to the person that might be a little scared? 當我們去認識人們的唯一性時，去認識他們的處境時，我們會明白，在職場中一直表現出“憤憤不平”的嬰兒潮一代的某個人其實內省充滿恐懼。因為他從16歲開始就每天工作，而某個他還來不及做好心理準備的周一，他就不用再去上班了。他有自己的計劃，那就是花一周半的時間把退休清單上的所有事情都做完。但是，在那之后呢?如果我們能給那個心懷一絲恐懼的人多一點的時間，會怎么樣?
Or that Generation X-er who has four drop-offs, three kids, two hands, and is just trying to keep the wheels on the bus. Sure, maybe she's a little aloof at work. Maybe she's a little independent, maybe she's exhausted. Or that millennial who asks for a raise after two months because they're "entitled?" Well, maybe it's because that generation has more debt than any generation before them, coming out of college, and they just need the money to keep going, to pay rent. 或者，X一代的某個人，她輟學四次，有三個孩子，只能通過自己的雙手努力給家人好的生活。當然，她可能對工作有些漠不關心，她可能有點無依無靠，她可能累壞了。又或者，千禧一代的某個人，工作兩個月后就要求加薪，因為他覺得自己“值得擁有”?這可能是因為這一代人在大學畢業后比此前的任何一代人有更多的債務，他們只是需要錢來維持生活，付租金。
And suddenly, when you meet people in their onlyness, that spot in the world only they stand, we're not talking about a generation anymore. We're talking about Jim or Jen or Candice. And so here's my challenge to us. Pick a person, just one, and explore their onlyness. And then learn. And then in the moments where it's appropriate, teach. And figure out what they bring to work that no one else can bring to work, because that's what makes work richer. And then do it again. And do it again. And then some day, we're not working with generations anymore. We're working with people. 突然，當你去認識人們的唯一性時，當你去了解他們的唯一處境時，那我們談論的就不是某一代人了，我們談論的是張三、李四或王五。我現在向大家發起挑戰，選擇一個人，就選一個，然后去探索他的唯一性。去了解。在合適的時候去溝通，教育。去看看他們為工作帶來了什么，是其他人沒有的，因為這才是讓工作更豐富多彩的關鍵所在。再尋找下一個目標。再尋找下下個目標。某一天，我們就不再是與某幾代人一起工作了。我們是與具體的一群人一起工作。
And so to really understand the beauty of the multigenerational workplace, I think we just have to meet people where they are. And that doesn't require that we unpack and live there with them. But we might find, at least on occasion, it's a beautiful place to visit. And so I think there's just no need to argue about which generation is the most angry or the most entitled or the most so obsessed with food. We all come to the classroom, to work, back to our homes, a little bit tired and a little bit tattered sometimes. Maybe let's just do our best to humbly meet people where they are, how they show up that day, generation and all. And in those moments where it can feel a little bit like intergenerational warfare, I think we can at least all agree that shoulder pads aren't the solution. 所以要想真正了解多代人工作環境的好處，我覺得我們要去了解人們的處境，這不是要我們去跟他們住在一起，但是我們可能會，至少時不時地會發現，這個地方很美好，值得一去。所以我認為真的沒有必要去爭論哪一代人最憤憤不平，哪一代人最自以為是，或者哪一代人最愛吃吃吃。我們都要上學、工作、下班回家，我們都會有點累，有時會有幾分不堪。那就讓我們盡可能謙遜地認識他人吧，認識他們的處境，同一代人也好，其他代人也罷。這樣的話，在代際間的斗爭初露端倪時，我想我們至少都贊同用肩墊解決不了問題。
Thank you. 謝謝大家。